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  1. A. Gröhn, Clock Synchronisation of a Computer Test Network (Testiverkon kellosynkronointi), Master's Thesis, Networking Laboratory, Helsinki University of Technology, 2004 (pdf)(bib)
    Abstract: Demands of clock synchronization accuracy increase directly proportional to network capacity. In addition to actual data transmission also precise network performance measurements are conditional on accurate synchronization. From data transmissions point of view it may be sufficient that the phase of clock signal is identical in every network component. Performance measurements may also require synchronization of absolute time in every network element participating in the actual measurement process.\ The goal of this thesis is to synchronize clocks of a test network well within one micro second bound. This requires planning and construction of a new synchronization system. Also some methods for measuring the achieved accuracy have to be considered.\ During this thesis it became apparent that this goal won’t be fully reached using off-theself PC hardware. Also the measurement of relative time difference between computers appeared to be a very challenging task. This is because the time management is done in the operating system. The upper bound of time difference can be estimated with methods described in this thesis. Also some future work is suggested in order to increase the achieved accuracy.