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  1. J. Karvo, O. Martikainen, J. Virtamo and S. Aalto, Blocking of dynamic multicast connections, Telecommunication Systems, vol. 16, 3,4, pp. 467-481, 2001 (link)(bib)
    Abstract: Multicast connections have a bandwidth saving nature. This means that a multicast connection - in taking the form of a tree where streams merge at the nodes - requires much less capacity from the network links than a bunch of separate point-to-point connections providing the same connectivity. In this paper, we consider dynamic multicast connections that can be used to model, for example, TV or radio delivery on a telecommunication network, such as an ATM network with virtual circuits. We show how to calculate the blocking probabilities of requests to join such a tree. First, we consider the blocking probabilities occuring in a single link. The resulting model is able to capture heterogeneous capacity requirements for different multicast channels. Then we extend the results to a whole network using the reduced load approximation. The accuracy of the approximation method is studied by simulations.