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  1. J. Karvo, J. Virtamo, S. Aalto and O. Martikainen, Blocking of dynamic multicast connections in a single link, in the Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Broadband Communications (BC'98), IFIP TC6-WG6.2, ''The future of telecommunications'', pp. 473-483, Chapman & Hall, London, 1998, Stuttgart, Germany (pdf)(bib)
    Abstract: In this paper, a method for calculating blocking experienced by dynamic multicast connections in a single link is presented. An originating office provides a number of channels distributed to the users by multicast subtrees which evolve dynamically as users join and leave the channels. We reduce this problem to a generalized Engset system with unidentical users and generally distributed holding times, and derive the call and channel blocking probabilities as well as the link occupancy distribution.